An electric car, also known as an EV or a plug-in hybrid car, is an automobile that is entirely powered by electricity stored in batteries. electric cars for sale in san diego are made up of three components: the battery pack which stores the electricity, an electric motor which provides power to move the vehicle and a controller which operates all electrical systems. In contrast to gasoline-powered vehicles, liquid fuels such as petroleum need to be stored on board the vehicle and it needs pipelines for distribution.
Battery Costs and Availability
Battery costs have plummeted over the last few years. In 2008, the specific cost of a lithium-ion battery was $7800 per kilowatt-hour (kWh). By 2014, this number had decreased to $1500-2700 per kWh. The cost of an electric car is heavily dependent on the vehicle’s range and can severely affect its price point. Due to the availability of cheap batteries, electric cars are now being mass produced and are becoming cost-competitive with their gasoline-powered counterparts. For example, the 2014 Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV can go up to 312 miles on a single charge for about $2800 in today’s dollars. The price in 2009 was over $6600 per mile.
Battery Range Limitations
Electric cars have limited battery range which is caused by power loss as well as the thermal management of the battery during use and charging.
For the first two hundred miles or so, a car is operating at maximum power and it is therefore limited by the power coming into the battery pack. The power loss along transmission lines and internal components also cause a reduction in charging efficiency. Keeping the battery cool increases total battery capacity by a factor of ten (which was researched through modeling and testing) but can only be performed for a certain amount of time before it degrades.
The most effective way to manage battery range is to use a DC fast charging station. This can charge the batteries to at least 80% in three to five minutes and this will last for about fifteen minutes. A regular 220V 10 amp outlet would take twenty-five hours at ten amps, meaning that the car would have to idle in traffic for two and a half more hours while charging.
Battery Life Expectancy
Lithium-ion batteries contain energy from the combustion of fossil fuels over their lifetime. The more they are used, the less they hold. The consequence is a reduction in range and a corresponding increase in price. However, hybrids and electric cars have been designed to conserve their mileage when the car is not being driven.